A more effective Vacomycin 

A more effective Vacomycin 

One of the most pressing issues in medicine at this time is the spreading of antibiotic resistance. As more and more human pathogens become resistant to current antibiotics, the number of antibiotics available to be used for treatment dwindles. One way to combat this spread of antibiotic resistance is to develop new form of current antibiotics that are able to bypass current forms of resistance.

Vancomycin was previously used to treat infections caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens such as MRSA. Over time, resistance to vancomycin has also spread to several pathogens. Resistance caused by replacement of D-ala-D-ala, a component of bacterial cell walls, with D-ala-D-lac. This substitution prevents the binding of vancomycin, as previous forms of vancomycin have a lower affinity towards D-ala-D-lac. To address this spread of antibiotic resistance, research team at the Scripps Research Institute developed new form of vancomycin.
This new form of vancomycin attacks bacteria in three ways to make it more difficult to develop resistance. It binds to D-ala-D-lac with a 1,000-fold increase in affinity, stops cell wall construction, and causes the outer membrane to increase in permeability. These three methods of attacking bacteria could help combat spread of antibiotic resistance because there is a smaller likelihood of developing defenses against all three methods of attack. This new form of vancomycin can potentially be used to combat vancomycin resistant forms of enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus.
However, before this new form of vancomycin is available for treatment more testing needs to be performed. First, the high cost of production need to decrease before animal testing will proceed. Finally, human clinical trials will start, but this process can take years.
Akinori Okano, Nicholas A. Isley, and Dale L. Boger 

Peripheral modifications of [{Psi}[CH2NH]Tpg4]vancomycin with added synergistic mechanisms of action provide durable and potent antibiotics

PNAS 2017 : 1704125114v1-201704125

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